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Dr. Sandra Carroll joined the McMaster University School of Nursing in 2009 and is currently an Associate Professor. She has a Bachelor of Science from the University of Toronto and a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) from McMaster University. Dr. Carroll completed a CIHR Strategic Training Fellowship in the FUTURE Program for Cardiovascular Nurse Scientists and a Post-Doctoral Fellowship through the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario/Michael G. DeGroote Chair in Cardiovascular Nursing Research.

Dr. Carroll’s research focus includes patients’ decision-making, decision support in the context of implantable defibrillators, patient preferences for cardiovascular treatments, patient engagement, and patient reported outcomes in arrhythmia care. Dr. Carroll has received operating funds from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Heart & Stroke Foundation, an Early Career Award from the Hamilton Health Sciences Foundation, and the Hamilton Community Foundation. Dr. Carroll is Chair of Patient Engagement for the Canadian Stroke Prevention Intervention Network.

Select Publications

  • Blandine Mondésert, MD, Jamil Bashir, MD, François Philippon, MD, Marc Dubuc, MD, Guy Amit, MD, Derek Exner, MD, Jacqueline Joza, MD, David H. Birnie, MD, Chris Lane, MD, Bernice Tsang, MD, Victoria Korley, MD, Danna Spears, MD, Andrea Ling, Angie Djuric, Eugene Crystal, MD, Tom Hruczkowski, MD,

    Jean-François Roux, MD, Sandra Carroll, RN, PhD, Vidal Essebag, MD PhD, Andrew D. Krahn, MD, and Jeff S. Healey, MD. (2018). Rationale and design of the randomized prospective ATLAS study: Avoid Transvenous Leads in Appropriate Subjects, American Heart Journal, Volume 207,

  • Carroll SL, Embuldeniya G, Pannag J*, Lewis KB*, Healey JS, McGillion M, Thabane L, Stacey D. “I don’t know exactly what you’re referring to”: The challenge of values elicitation in decision making for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Patient Preference and Adherence, 28 September 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1947-1954, 
  • Lewis, K., Carroll, S.L., Birnie, D., Stacey, D., Matlock, D. (2018). Incorporating Patients' Preference  Diagnosis in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Decision-Making: A Review of Recent Literature, Current Opinion in Cardiology, 33: Pages 42-49, doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000464
  • Carroll, S.L., McGillion, M., Stacey, D., Healey, J.S., Foster, G., Hutchings, S.A., Arthur, H.M., Browne, G., Thabane, L. (2017). Evaluating the effects of a patient decision aid in ICD candidates: A randomized controlled feasibility trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 3:49. doi:10.1186/s40814-017-0189-9.
  • Durepos P*, Kaasalainen S, Carroll SL, Papaioannou A. (2017). Perceptions of a psychoeducation program for caregivers of persons with dementia at end of life: A Qualitative Study. Aging and Mental Health, Nov 8:1-9. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1399347. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Kelly F*, Liska C, Morash R, Hu J, Carroll SL, Shorr R, Dent S, Stacey D. (2017) Shared medical appointments for patients with a nondiabetic physical chronic illness: A systematic review. Chronic Illness. Pages 1-24. Epub September 20, 2017 doi: 10.1177/1742395317731608
  • Carroll, S.L, Embuldeniya, G., Abelson, J., McGillion, M., Berkesse, A., Healey, J. S. (2017). Questioning Patient Engagement: Research Scientists’ perceptions of the challenges of patient engagement in a Cardiovascular Research Network. Patient Preferences and Adherence, 11, 1573-1583.
  • Allan KS*, Henry S, Aves T, Banfield L, Victor JC, Dorian P, Healey JS, Andrade J, Carroll SL, McGillion M. (2017). Comparison of Health Related Quality of Life in Patients Treated with Catheter Ablation or Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e017577. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017577
  • Lauck, S., Baumbusch, J., Achtem, L., Forman, J., Carroll, S.L, Cheung, A., Ye, J. (2016). Factors influencing the decision of older adults to be assessed for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: An exploratory study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 15(7), 486-494.
  • Lewis, K.B., Stacey, D., Carroll, S.L., Boland, L., Sikora, L., Birnie, D. (2016). Estimating the risks and benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator replacement: A systematic review. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 39(7), 709-722.
  • Krahn, A., Healey, J.S., Gerull, B., Angaran, P., Chakrabarti, S., Sanatani, S., Arbour, L., Laskman, Z., Carroll, S.L., Seifer, C., Green, M., Roberts, JD., Talajic, M., Hamilton, R., Gardner, M. (2016). The Canadian Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Registry: Rationale, Design and Preliminary Recruitment. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 32(12), 1396-1401.
  • Lewis, K., Stacey,D., Squires,J., Carroll, S.L. (2016). Shared decision-making models acknowledging an interprofessional approach: A theory analysis to inform nursing practice. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 30 (1), 26-43.
  • McGillion, M., Victor, J.C., Carroll, S.L., Metcalfe, K., O’Keefe-McCarthy, S., Jamal, N., Gershman, S., Arthur, H.M., McKelvie, R., Jolicoeur, E.M., Hanlon, Stone, J., Beanlands, R., Svorkdal, N., Stacey, D. (2015). The CREATE method for expressing continuous outcome data in absolute terms for use in patient treatment decision aids: A validation study. Medical Decision Making, 35(8), 959-966.
  • Carroll, S.L., McGillion, M., Arthur, HM. (2014). Living with and Implantable Defibrillator: A Model of Chronic Uncertainty. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 28(1), 1-16.
  • Carroll, S.L., McGillion, M., Stacey, D., Healey, J., Browne, G., Arthur, H.M., Thabane, L. (2013). Development and Feasibility Testing of Decision Support for Patients who are Candidates for an Implantable defibrillator: a study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 14: 346.
  • Carroll, S.L., Markle-Reid, M., Ciliska, D., Connolly, S.J., Arthur, H.M. (2012)  Age and Mental Health Predict Early Device-Specific Quality of Life in Patients Receiving Prophylactic Implantable Defibrillators, Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 28(4);502-507.
  • Carroll, S.L., Strachan, P.H., de Laat, S., Schwartz, L., Arthur, H.M. (2011). Patients’ Decision Making to Accept or Decline an Implantable Cardioverter for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death. Health Expectations. [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2011.00703.x; Published online, February 13, Vol 16 (1), pp 69-79.


  • PhD, McMaster University 
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