Sandra Caroll holds various positions in the School of Nursing at McMaster University, including Vice-Dean, Executive Director and Associate Professor. She is also the Director of Clinical Health Professional Research and an Affiliate Researcher of the Population Health Research Institute at Hamilton Health Sciences. Dr. Carroll has completed a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Fellowship in the FUTURE Program for Cardiovascular Nurse Scientists and a Post-Doctoral Fellowship through the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario/Michael G. DeGroote Chair in Cardiovascular Nursing Research. Her research interests are centered around patient decision making processes and patient reported outcomes in the context of arrhythmia care. Dr. Carroll’s most recent work has focused on patient decision making through prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), including how aging and comorbidities influence patient preferences.